Posted by: deenesteem | August 16, 2010


Fiqh of the Hanafi Madhhab                                                                                                             

Taken from “ Maraaq al-FalaaH”  

AL-HADATH AL-AKBAR (Major Ritual Impurity)

  1. Al-Hayd (Menstruation): It is blood that is released from the womb of a woman who has reached the age of puberty, being health, not pregnant, and not having reached the age of menopause. The minimum age of puberty is 9 lunar years.
    1. Minimium Duration = 3 days (anything less than that is considered istihaadah)
    2. Maximumu Duration = 10 days (anything beyond that is considered istihaadah)

[Note: Intermittent bleeding that occurs during the regular times of hayd is still considered hayd if it reaches the total reaches the minimum amount]

  1. C.      Habit = average of 5 days for most women   [Note: If a woman has a habit, but finds that her period has lasted longer than that, she must consider the bleeding to be hayd until she reaches 10 days]
  2. D.      Prohibited actions for Ha’id (menstruating woman):
    1. Salah
    2. Saum
    3. Recitation of (even one verse of the) Quran or touching of itj
    4. Entering the Masjid* (except in cases of emergency)
    5. Tawaf
    6. Intercourse
    7. Deriving pleasure from that which is below the navel until below the knees [while naked]
    8. Hukm:  Hayd causes the woman to be in a state of major ritual impurity. To remove this state, ghusl becomes obligatory at the time the bleeding stops or after the completion of 10 days’ bleeding.  After ghusl, all prohibited acts become permissible.  The ha’id must make up any missed days of Saum, but is not required to make up missed salawaat.  [Note: If the woman's hayd is terminated by the passage of 10 days, sexual relations with her spouse become permissible even before the performance of ghusl, according to the Hanafi madhhab.  All of the other schools of thought require ghusl before the permissibility of sexual relations in this or any other case. If the woman's flow stops before the 10-day maximum, all scholars agree that sexual relations are not allowed until she performs ghusl.]
    9. Transition period:  Only the salah in the interval of which a woman’s hayd terminates is required to made up.  For example, if the woman’s hayd terminates during the time for Dhuhr, then she must make up this salah even if she didn’t perform ghusl within that salah interval.  Delaying the ghusl is not permissible except in cases of dire necessity.  Any salah that passes by after a woman’s hayd has terminated but before she has performed ghusl becomes a debt to Allah upon her.


  1. An-Nifas (Lochia) : It is bleeding that occurs immediately after giving birth.
    1. Minimum Duration = none (Hanafis only require wudu’ for a woman who gives birth without bleeding)
    2. Maximum Duration = 40 days (anything beyond that is istihaadah)
    3. Prohibited actions for Nufasaa’ (woman releasing nifas blood): everything that is forbidden for the menstruating woman.
    4. Hukm: Same as for a menstruating woman (including the transition period)


  1. Al-Istihaadah (Excessive bleeding):  It is bleeding that comes from the frontal private parts of a woman in cases of illness.  It is any bleeding which lasts for less then 3 days or the excess beyond 10 days of hayd bleeding or the excess beyond 40 days of nifas bleeding.
    1. Prohibited Actions: All actions which are permissible for a woman in a state of purity are permissible for the mustahadah (one who is bleeding in excess of hayd) on the following conditions:
      1. She must perform wudu’ for every salah (after the interval has begun) and then she may pray whatever she wishes of fard or nafil (voluntary) prayers within that interval.  Once the salah interval elapses, her wudu’ is nullified and she must renew it for the next salah.
      2. She must try to contain the bleeding by wearing a pad or other tightly wrapped cloth to prevent the spread of the blood.


  1. Duration of Purity (intervals between bleeding)
    1. Minimum: 15 days
    2. Maximum: none [except for the woman who reached puberty having istihaadah, meaning the first time she had her period it was longer than 10 days]


  1. Janaabah: It is the state of major ritual impurity caused by engaging in intercourse.
    1. Prohibited acts:
      1. Salah
      2. Recitation of (even one verse of) the Quran and the touching of itj
      3. Entering the Masjid*
      4. Tawaf

B. Hukm:  The removal of the state of major ritual impurity is done by the performance of ghusl.  Once ghusl has been performed, all of the prohibited acts become permissible.  If the Junub (one in a state of janaabah) desires to sleep, eat, or resume sexual relations, it is mandub (recommended) for him to perform wudu’ before doing so.  However, this wudu’ doesn’t render any of the prohibited acts permissible.

  1. An-Najasaat (sing. Najasah) : These are substances that are impure and require removal. There are two types of najaasah:
    1. Heavy Najasah (Ghaleedha): The weight of a dirham’s worth of this type of najaasah is pardoned, but anything beyond that must be removed from the body or clothes.
      1. Khamr
      2. Gushing Blood
      3. Meat and skin of Maytah (animal that died without slaughtering) [except animals of the sea]
      4. Urine of animals that are not permissible for eating
      5. Pig
      6. All that nullifies wudu’ from that which is released by the body of a human:

a)       flowing blood

b)       Human urine or feces [Note: However, the urine of an infant male who has not yet began to eat solids is not considered najas and requires only to be sprinkled with water.]

c)       Maniy, Madhiy, Wadiy

d)       Hayd, Nifas, Istihaadah

e)       Vomit (beyond a mouthful)

  1. Light Najasah (Khafeefah): One fourth of the body’s or cloth’s surface worth of this type of najaasah is pardoned, but anything beyond that must be removed.
    1. Urine of a horse
    2. Urine of animals that are permissible to eat
    3. Beak of birds that are not permissible to eat

C.  Removal of Najaasah: This can be accomplished using water or any liquid (such as vinegar or rose water).  The ground which was exposed to najaasah becomes pure after drying.  Dry maniy can be removed by scratching it off the clothes or body and wet maniy should be washed.  The skin of maytah is purified by tanning.

j However, most scholars agree that if verses of the Quran are being recited for the purpose of dhikr (remembrance of Allah) and not recitation, it is permissible. 

* The use of the word  ‘masjid’ in this context refers to the actual room in which the Muslims perform their salah and not to the entire building which may include many other rooms not used for the purpose of salah.


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